October 28, 2019 34

Astronomers Discovered a Forbidden Planet But Have No idea Why It Exists

Astronomers Discovered a Forbidden Planet But Have No idea Why It Exists

According to astronomy, planets the size of
Neptune couldn’t possibly form and sustain any kind of atmosphere while orbiting their
parent stars at a close proximity. Well, forget what I just said, — because
I didn’t quite understand any of it either – but last year, astronomers found exactly
this kind of planet! And it’s not the only planet that defies
all our knowledge. Will scientists have to reconsider their picture
of the Universe? Ooh — Let’s find out! Exoplanets are the hottest topic in astronomy
right now, and with every new discovery, we’re getting more and more confident of our view
of the Universe we live in. But some of those discoveries simply baffle
the mind! The planet I’m talking about is called NGTS-4b. I like Vulcan better, but they didn’t ask
me. That planet was found by the Next-Generation
Transit Survey, or NGTS, located in the Atacama Desert, Chile. This base of robotic exoplanet search is aimed
at finding super-Earth and sub-Neptune planets. It uses a method that measures the dimming
of a star, which happens when a planet crosses the line between a star and a point of observation. The duration and magnitude of the dimming
help to figure out the size, density, and how far the exoplanet is from its parent star. NGTS-4b is, at least for now, the only known
sub-Neptune sized planet that orbits its star in a so-called “Neptunian Desert”. And it’s called Desert for a reason; the
radiation coming from the stars in Neptunian Deserts is pretty vicious. Normally it would evaporate any kind of atmosphere
from any planets in close proximity and leave them as small, blazing-hot rocks. Scientists can only guess at why this didn’t
happen to NGTS-4b. This planet still has an atmosphere, and it’s
about 80% of the size of Neptune. It orbits the star at an astonishing speed
– a full circle in 1.3 days. One suggestion is that the planet wasn’t
always that close to the star and it just recently migrated there, so its atmosphere
is evaporating right now. Another possible explanation for the existence
of NGTS-4b is that its atmosphere was a lot larger in the past and we’ve found it just
in time to watch the final round of the show. That would mean that we can observe the process
and see for ourselves how it happens. And this isn’t the first surprising discovery
of NGTS. On October 31, 2017, the NGTS-1b planet was
discovered. This planet is a hot-gas giant, almost exactly
the same size as our neighbor Jupiter. But the strange thing about this planet is
that it orbits a red dwarf star that’s only half the size of our Sun. This has never been seen before, and in theory,
such huge planets shouldn’t orbit stars so small. There probably won’t be a sensible explanation
for this until other similar planets are found. But for now – nobody knows how it’s possible! A Neptune-sized planet so close to its star
and huge planets orbiting small stars are puzzling enough, but how about the planet
that should’ve been swallowed by its star by now, but still stands firm in its orbit? That’s right, something like this was also
found in the vast space of the Universe. Kepler-78b is the planet. We’ll have a quiz on these names later. It’s just a little bit bigger than the Earth. It’s supposedly as dense as the Earth and
has a similar composition, but it’s even closer to its host star than NGTS-4b. One year on this planet lasts only 8.5 hours;
that’s how long it takes for the planet to go full circle around the star. The closest planet to our Sun, Mercury, is
about 36 million miles from it. Kepler-78b orbits its star at a distance of
less than 1.5 times the diameter of the star itself. That’s less than 1 billion miles from the
surface of the star, and as far as we know, it’s absolutely impossible. Kepler-78b is constantly getting closer and
closer to the star it orbits, and one day, it’ll be swallowed by it. But for now, the planet stands firm. And that’s not even the most puzzling part;
how, in a name of the Universe, did this planet even come to be? As far as we know, there’s absolutely no
way for a planet like Kepler-78b to be formed so close to a star, and there’s also no
way for it to migrate so close without crashing into the star. More than that, if you imagine how things
were when the planet was formed, it appears that its star was even bigger at that time. And that means that Kepler-78b was formed…
right in the place where the star once was? This simply doesn’t make any sense for astronomers
today. All they can do is collect more information
about this planet and hope to find other similar ones, so they can learn more about planet
formation in the future. Now, let’s turn from blazing desert planets
at risk of being devoured by their own suns, to somewhere really dark. To a planet that’s so far from its star,
it shouldn’t exist. The planet I’m talking about is – prepare
yourself because it’s going to be a mouthful – HD 106906 b. For simplicity, lt’s just call it “Bob”. This planet is the only known companion orbiting
not one star, but two stars at the same time. The planet is 11 times more massive than Jupiter
and is orbiting the binary star at an unimaginable distance. It’s 69 billion miles away from the core
of the system. What’s even stranger is that this system
is still really young, only 14 million years old. Just for a point of reference, our system
is 4.5 billion years old! How it’s possible for a planet this big
to form this far from its parent star is just incomprehensible. Once again, the most possible explanation
is that it was formed near the star but later pushed farther out. Yet there’s still one cool possibility. This planet could’ve been a failed star. This means that some collections of gas crashing
into other similar clouds could react and form a binary star system. But what if one such gas-clump somehow failed
and became a giant gas planet instead? It’s possible, though it’s just a theory. And finally, the big surprise: impossible
planets may be a lot closer to us than you think! How about our own solar system? You know all that buzz going on around Pluto? At one time it’s a planet, and then suddenly
it’s not. What happened here? Did Pluto forget to renew its planet license
or something? Jokes aside, there was a prediction that there’s
some kind of ninth planet in the Solar System long before the discovery of Pluto in 1930. But about half a century later, when our technology
was making a huge leap forward, we were able to see that Pluto is just one of around 70,000
objects in its region of space. There’s a big collection of asteroids, ice,
and dust called the Kuiper Belt. Here, other objects – some just as big as
Pluto – were discovered. And as we know, there can’t be several planets
placed in the same orbit. One object discovered in 2005, named Eris,
is said to be even bigger than Pluto, but it still can’t be called a planet. At least Pluto got all the fame first, before
Eris showed up. It would be a closed case for the ninth planet,
but this story seems to be much more complicated. Evidence found in 2016 by astronomers Gongjie
Li and Fred Adams, suggests that there actually is a strange Planet X in the Solar system. Only, it’s far more distant than even Pluto
and the Kuiper Belt. We don’t know for sure exactly how far it
is, but the estimated distance of its orbit varies from 40 billion to 140 billion miles
from the Sun. That’s 400 to 1500 times farther than the
Earth is from the Sun! The problem is – contrary to all the evidence,
it’s not supposed to be there. We just don’t know any possible way for
a planet to form at such distance from its host star. The most probable explanation for the Ninth
Planet’s distance is that it was once a gas-giant, like Jupiter, but it couldn’t
compete, and the gravitational forces of other planets pushed it further away. While this is possible, another theory suggests
that the Ninth Planet was formed at a great distance in the first place, but then it was
torn out from its orbit by another star passing relatively near to the Sun. It seems like similar things happened quite
often when the Solar System was only starting to form. Still, the simulation shows that those explanations
aren’t ideal. The chances of the proposed scenarios coming
to life are estimated from 2% to 10%. In simple terms – all of them are quite
unlikely! Guess only time and lots of research will
tell. What do you think? What are astronomers missing in their attempts
to explain the origin of impossible planets? What about impossible burgers? Who knows, maybe your idea is the key to a
better understanding of the Universe? Let me know down in the comments! If you learned something new today, then give
this video a like and share it with a friend. But – hey! – don’t go Star Trekking
just yet! We have over 2,000 cool videos for you to
check out. All you have to do is pick the left or right
video, click on it, and enjoy! Stay on the Bright Side of life!

34 Replies to “Astronomers Discovered a Forbidden Planet But Have No idea Why It Exists”

  • BRIGHT SIDE says:

    Hey there, BrightSiders! If you could go to ANY planet, which one would you choose? Mars? Pluto?

  • kmacow says:

    Kepler-78b is 1.5 "Million" Kilometers from Kepler-78 not 1.6 Billion Kilometers.

  • The Drone Horseman says:

    I prefer your sister channel DARK SIDE

  • Jaweria Saleem says:

    I'm in love with this channel , because whenever it make videos based on astronomy it just gain my attention ,i'm proud to be a bright sider and hoping for more astronomy based videos soon..

  • Chris H says:

    It's pronounced 'ATA-KHAMA desert.

  • Mohmmad Arif says:

    Maybe the star isn't hot enough

  • Jorge Rodriguez says:


  • Maou says:

    who said it was a joke????

  • Doc Bailey says:

    Heh heh heh heh heh.

  • Jesster Agullana says:

    so hard

  • Jesster Agullana says:

    bob ha ha ha funny name

  • Jesster Agullana says:

    yes planet x is strange planet

  • §paethon says:

    Error at 4:15. They say Kepler 78b is about 1 billion miles from the surface from the star, which is 1.5 times the diameter of the star which is a Red Dwarf, and the planet takes 8.5 hours to make a complete revolution. Earth orbits 92 million miles from our medium sized Sun in 365 days. Something isn't adding up here.

  • zypherfox says:

    i dont see how planets cant form with out a star since every body has its own gravity. but i can see slower moving bodys getting drawn in and pushed around by the gravity of stronger bodys to be set in odd orbits.
    and how can something be impossible if you can plainly see it exists xD
    i thought objects with some type of atmosphere makes it considered a planet not the size of the object

  • TinyLight Heart says:

    I don't know why da thumbs down button is 666

  • Phil Culp says:

    Ok so first of all there is no such thing as impossible. Secondly just because we don't understand how something came to be does not mean there isn't an answer somewhere to explain it. In another video you state that physics doesn't allow for certain things to happen like with black holes. How the laws of physics seem to go right out the window. This is because physics in itself can be changed given certain circumstances. So the laws of physics are not really laws they are more like guidelines and as guidelines can be changed when needed. This also means that we as people some time in the future will be able to go around those laws and therefore not be limited by them. This is a good thing, in the right hands. This also means that there is a possibility that we may not fully understand the laws of physics either, what if the laws are not all known to us? Its exciting to think that there are things in the universe that we do not know and that we are still very much in preschool trying to figure it all out. Anyway I firmly believe that there is no impossible only a lack of understanding. Once we know a thing then its understood so lets try to keep from manipulative words like impossible, not possible, isn't supposed to be possible because the fact is we simply don't know and thats what you should be saying. Its ok to admit that science hasn't figured something out yet.

  • Sports Mania says:

    Subhanallah 🥰

  • wncranejr says:

    The reason all these things seem impossible is they don't consider that there is a creator who is at work and that work is constantly disproving theories about how the universe came to be.

  • Zuzo's corner says:

    "will be" well maybei t alreayd has bene givne how long light takse to reahc us

  • Sky Walker says:

    Whenever i watch a video on this channel not only that i have fun watching it but it also teach me new things i didn't even know and wanted to know more about actually some good question answered here but most important answered honestly .thank you guys for the good fun information and the researches you do

  • Agian Naigan says:

    Me: sees a star that looks like a flag
    Nasa: shhhhhhhh

  • Rithvik B says:

    am I wasting time or doing something great by watching all this videos

  • arno kosterman says:

    Tray plasma science 😍
    Duol core plasma positioning more dinamics more intangelmant more motion than the balance feild are match further away🙄
    To lead the newborn soul of the planned to bring birth into orbit😍
    It is so beautyful in its simplisety😍

    If you understand creations it is pullid inwards becouse energy is pulled outwarts for the graventational point to manivest💜
    Same way as howe our pfisicle body has manivested

  • Eugene Gee says:

    Scientist will never find an answer to all of these mysteries because God spoke them into being. The Bible says that the proof of God's existence is in his creation. That proof exists in the stars, in animal and human physiology, in plants, in our DNA, and in every single one of the sciences. I am sorry to say this but those who deny God and Jesus will be condemned on Judgement Day.

  • Nicholas Baxter says:

    5:00 maybe it got closer as the star shrunk.

  • Bogdan Săndulescu says:

    The humanity can land anywhere in the neighbor sistems…we all just need to stop believing in "woow god made us an extraordinary universe". God is jist a theory like the theory of multiverse. When you estimate the number of solar systems in one galaxy then you estimate the number of galaxyes in observable universe than in the entire universe you will estimate the number of solar systems in the entire universe. After this just estimate the number of habitable zones in the entire universe. It will give you something like 11 followed by 15 to 22 zeroes(11000000000000000000000) let's say this but it is still small. This is the estimated number of habitable zones like earth is in our solar system where water can be liquid and atmosphere good and etc. It is just impossible not to be an other form of life in the universe. Now stop believing in god and stop being pulled back by god theory and start go forward for this civilization to grow up. Peace. Nice work bright side. Greetings from the Spacecraft

  • luxjeons hehe says:

    my brain..

  • Winston Lesailane says:

    Would Neptune have the same size if it was in the orbital space of mercury?

  • Fox Hound says:

    The thing about space and all the planets outside our solar system is that we don’t understand how the function properly. Like how would scientist know if that first planet shouldn’t have an atmosphere. Anything is possible in space and we’ve not even discovered 1% of the universe

  • Moe's World says:

    For God nothing is impossible, he shows his signs that you can't comprehend, human thinking is only finite

  • Reg Lon says:

    Great Titan AE reference there on Planet Bob

  • Padmini V k says:


  • Killer says:

    me: why do we only see the sun and the moon but not the other plants?
    Google : Unlike the planets, stars can appear anywhere. So we don't see planets near the North

    Star or any of the other stars that are above or below the flat ecliptic. Of course, sometimes our views
    of the planets are blocked by the light of the Sun, which makes the daytime sky a bright blue.
    me: confused

  • Phrenetic says:

    All I know is that Ceres is actually a spaceship covered in a crust of debris. It was launched as a rescue pod millions of years ago by a silicon based society when cyanobacteria took over the world. There, on Ceres, they lie sleeping, dreaming of the glorious past, waiting for an unknown future.

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